(Arabic: الزباء بنت عمرو بن الظرب بن حسان ابن أذينة بن السميدع, al-Zabbā’, daughter of ‘Amr son of al-Ẓarib son of Ḥassān son of Adhīnah son of al-Samīda‘),
most commonly referred to simply as al-Zabbā’.
In Greek, she is known as Zēnobía (Greek: ἡ Ζηνοβία) or Septimia Zenobia, having added Septimia after marrying Septimius Odaenathus.
Zenobia herself signed official documents Bat-Zabbai (daughter of al-Zabbā’).
Zenobia and her mother were called al-Zabbā’, meaning ‘the one with long lovely hair’.
Queen Zenobia’s Last Look Upon Palmyra,
by Herbert Schmalz
During the disasters of the middle of the third century CE the Asiatic provinces of the Empire were nearly torn away, first by the Persians, then by the rulers of Palmyra, a thriving and powerful city situated upon an oasis in the Syrian desert. From 266 to 273 CE. the sovereign of this city and the “Queen of the East” was Zenobia, a woman of courage and energy, who almost founded an Oriental empire to the detriment of Rome. From this dismemberment the Roman world was saved by the Emperor Aurelian, who among his other conquests overcame Zenobia and destroyed Palmyra (273 A.D.), after no puny struggle.
Next, she attempted to take Antioch to the north.
In 272, the Roman Emperor Aurelian finally retaliated and captured her and brought her back to Rome.
He paraded her in golden chains but allowed her to retire to a villa in Tibur, where she took an active part in society for years.
(Do we know where her bones are buried? I wonder.)
Aedeen Cremin considers its ruins the “best preserved” at Palmyra.
Palmyra provided everything that caravan merchants could want.
There were shops for the merchants selling food, clothes, travel items and even souvenirs.
These are the remains of a bathhouse furnace. A large bathtub was used. There was also a sauna.
This is the Roman-style Theatre. It is 48 metres wide and had seating around 2,000 people.
Temples were even built for merchants who came from different countries.
This one enshrines Greek gods, as well Arabian and Persian gods.
This international city reached the height of its prosperity in the 3rd century.
However, then Queen Zenobia revolted against the Roman Empire and lost.
The Romans destroyed the town
what was once a caravan traders paradise slowly disappeared into the sand.